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1 About this document

This is an unofficial reference manual for the LaTeX2e document preparation system, which is a macro package for the TeX typesetting program (see Overview).

This document’s home page is There you can get the sources, subscribe to the mailing list or read its archives, see other infrastructure, and get the current output in various formats. In particular, the output comes in two web formats. Probably the most convenient one, shown at, has pages for each topic and so is good for a quick lookup; see also the note there about easy-to-remember links. The other, shown at, has all the information on single page.

In this document, we will mostly just use ‘LaTeX’ rather than ‘LaTeX2e’, since the previous version of LaTeX (2.09) was frozen decades ago.

LaTeX is currently maintained by a group of volunteers ( The official documentation written by the LaTeX project is available from their web site. This document is completely unofficial and has not been reviewed by the LaTeX maintainers. Do not send bug reports or anything else about this document to them. Instead, please send all comments to

This document is a reference. There is a vast array of other sources of information about LaTeX, at all levels. Here are a few introductions.

Two pages of recommended references to LaTeX documentation.

Writing your first document, with a bit of both text and math.

The guide for document authors that is maintained as part of LaTeX. Many other guides by many other people are also available, independent of LaTeX itself; one such is the next item:

A short introduction to LaTeX, translated to many languages.

Introduction to the TeX system, including LaTeX, with further references.

Unofficial LaTeX2e reference manual